In fact, Mastiff owners say the Cane Corso is by far the most responsive Mastiff when it comes to training. It also helps if youâre open to a Cane Corso Mastiff mix. Itâs Not Pronounced âKane Korso.â, 6. Talvolta è accettata anche una piccola macchia bianca su petto, punta delle zampe e canna â¦ The Cane Corso has a life expectancy of 10 to 12 years. Either way, when a dog of this size, with its incredible jaw pressure, reacts â¦ well, let me just say that I hope you have a good insurance policy that covers physical therapy after you get stitched up. Newton is a bit aloof, but not unfriendly, and he generally gives a good impression to people who want to meet him. Pages Businesses Local Service Pet Service Pet Breeder Cane Corso St Louis County Videos Tigrato pup available!!!! It was recognized by the United Kennel Club on July 15, 2008 under the name Cane Corso Italiano , and subsequently by the American Kennel Club in 2010 under the name Cane Corso . In name and form the Cane Corso predates its cousin the Neapolitan Mastiff. Characteristics. Iâve often pointed out that Iâve had dogs live to ripe old age on nothing more than generic dog food. All working dogs need to feel like they have something to do and if they donât, the Cane Corso temperament will change into that of a nuisance. There are also fawn, black brindle, red, grey, and chestnut brindle Cane Corsos out there. Extra 10% Off on Your Entire Order with Cane Corso Tigrato Coupon. With Cane Corsos there are no exceptions, to this rule of thumb. On the other hand, if itâs theft youâre worrying about, donât sweat it. The average price of a Cane Corso puppy for sale is around $1,500. However, the answer here is no, the Cane Corso Italian Mastiff is not aggressive with people by nature. This goes to socialization again, and also to being a good âdog ambassador.â Mary gets Newton âout there,â and uses every opportunity to show what good dogs Cane Corsos can be. With the right amount of socialization and training, the Cane Corso will drop some, if not all, of his reservations. Binding of different intensities is also common in both basic coat colors, making it Tigrato (Black Brindle) and Grigio Tigrato (Blue Brindle). While a shelter dog may have issues, especially if heâs been in the shelter for a while, at least heâs probably housetrained. Here are a selection of great Cane Corso names inspired by great historical figures: Brutus â a Roman â¦ It might or might not work. The Cane Corso dogs are well muscled, and less bulky than most other Mastiff breeds. This is not an ordinary dog. A well-trained Cane Corso will be very devoted to its owner and always want to please. Cane Corsolooks like the three headed dog in harry potter! For this reason, Corsos are best suited to singletons, although they can be great family dogs in the right circumstances â where thereâs not one person whoâs the âalpha.â. The Cane Corso is a large Italian Molosser, which is closely related to the Neapolitan Mastiff. You might be able to get the physical discipline thing wrong with a Yorkie, or a Dachshund, or even something as big as a Golden Retriever, but if you try that crap with a Cane Corso, you could end up in the hospital. With some breeds, this might simply lead to a reluctance to be near the fearful human. In the hands of an amateur, though, a Corso can be like a fully-loaded .44 magnum with the safety off. Here are a selection of great Cane Corso names inspired by great historical figures: Brutus – a Roman politician The Cane Corso, pronounced kha-neh kor-so (ˈkaːne ˈkɔrso) from Italian Cane (dog) and Corso, either meaning courtyard or guard, also known as the Italian Mastiff, is a large Italian breed of dog, for years valued highly in Italy as a companion, guard dog, and hunter. A dog is only as good as the owner who trains him. For those who like the idea of a very large dog that is protective and athletic, the cane corso is one to consider. SHOW DEAL. As a hobby breeder, our focus is on making the Cane Corso breed the best it can be. Dog Breeder. SHOW DEAL. These are all strong-willed dogs that can give you a world of grief if youâre not prepared to devote time to training. ( 427 x 640px 71.62KB. Their stocky build may make it seem like Cane Corsos require an immense amount of exercise, but thatâs actually not true. However, if you go farther back into the history of dog fighting, any dog that was ever thrown into a pit to fight others of its kind for the amusement of assholes could be termed a âpit bull.â This would include English Mastiffs, Rottweilers, my beloved Boxers, Cane Corsos, and more. All I can say to you here is that if you love that little Corso puppy you brought home, be prepared to love him when he gets old and to give him the veterinary care he will need as he ages. Testicular cancer is not all that common. for a female and 99 and 110 lbs. You may want to spend some time with one before you adopt, though, since most shelters do not know each dogâs history. The breed is known as a true and quite possibly the last of the coursing mastiffs. Cane Corsos of either gender can grow to a significant size, up to 2 feet at the shoulder and 120 pounds. Tigrato brindle Cane Corso Italian mastiff. ADN-227910 If you would like us to add a picture of your dog, please e-mail to the above e-mail address. Our Cane Corsos live in our home, not in a shed or cage. Breed of the Week: The Cane Corso (Video) 10 Dog Breeds Mistaken for Pit Bulls Group Spotlight: The Working Group Dogs and 5 Unique Examples from the Group. Hi animal lovers, I see you are looking for 88+ Tigrato Grigio Tigrato Cane Corso Cucciolo. You might have heard, by means of the âlamestream media,â that Cane Corsos were bred to fight. However, if you do not socialize him well enough early on, he can develop a tendency to be possessive, territorial, and dominant. Iâve already talked about the magnificent Cane Corso in one of my Breed of the Week posts, but mainly what I dealt with in that post was the history of the breed along with the various disorders the breed can be prone to, along with a bit of information about training and temperament. It is well muscled and less bulky than most other Mastiff breeds. The Cane Corso, pronounced kha-neh kor-so (ËkaËne ËkÉrso) from Italian Cane (dog) and Corso, either meaning courtyard or guard, also known as the Italian Mastiff, is a large Italian breed of dog, for years valued highly in Italy as a companion, guard dog, and hunter. Il cane corso è una delle razze di cani che negli ultimi anni va più di moda, anche perché abbina una certa possanza fisica ad una grande eleganza nel portamento. ... Get 30% Off Cane Corso Yavru KÃ¶pek Discount Code for Orders Over $50. They can be Tigrato or Grigio Tigrato. However, Iâve never owned a breed quite as large as the Cane Corso, and the fact is that a big dog has nutritional requirements that are different from those of small or medium size dogs. The Cane Corso, also referred to as an Italian Mastiff, is a large dog breed that originated in Italy. A Cane Corso isnât whatâs known as a âseasonal shedder,â meaning that he wonât drop a ton of hair on your floor twice a year. The AKC recognized the Cane Corso in 2010 as part of the working group. He is a mostly quiet dog, so when he barks, you know something important is going on. In the hands of an amateur, though, a Corso can be like a fully-loaded .44 magnum with the safety off. The fact is, the term âPit Bullâ is very much over-used. You may, therefore, be doing your dog a favor by having his ears cropped. This absolutely eliminates the risk of testicular cancer â no testicles, no chance of cancer. I soggetti fulvi e tigrati devono, tuttavia, avere la maschera nera o grigia sul muso che non superi gli occhi. In the more distant past this breed was common all over Italy as an ample iconography and historiography testify. They should also be able to give you the certifications and information necessary to make a decision on the right dog for you. Verified and Tested. In fact, this color is considered a fault of a number of kennel organizations. With an English Mastiff or Great Dane, usually, you can anticipate a life expectancy of about 7 years. Despite their powerful physiques, Cane Corso make excellent family pets due to their gentle nature and are incredibly loyal to their owners. To make a donation for the Cane Corso Pedigree Database click this button To add your dog or litter to this database please fill out the form add a Cane Corso or add a litter. Today, people still use the Cane Corso for these purposes. Appartiene alla categoria dei cani molossi e come tale ha un carattere deciso e sviluppa un forte attaccamento al padrone. If you need more information about 88+ Tigrato Grigio Tigrato Cane Corso Cucciolo, you can check the following LINK. But the main reason to neuter your Corso is that it reduces aggression. Since coming to the United States in 1987 the breed has gained popularity. Click here for 10 benefits of exercising your dog daily. The Cane Corso Mastiff has a life span of 10-11 years. As long as you train them properly as a puppy, the Cane Corso temperament will remain devoted, loving, and gentle, and you will be sure to love them back just as much. This is a powerful dog with an attitude and can be very dangerous in the wrong hands. You can usually trust that the AKC wouldnât put its name behind a breeder who isnât above-board. The Corso will then decide that he should be the pack leader, and may become stubborn or even aggressive toward the âweakâ human. If not, they may start to be aggressive and try to assert dominance. Perhaps one of this dogâs best traits is how trainable he is. The last thing you want is to find out that your Corso has a serious disease or disorder thatâs going to cost you a fortune, and you donât have the money to deal with it. A blue fawn (also called formentino), his looks are similar to the Neopolitan Mastiff of Italy from the olden days. I say this in the context that most animal health experts recommend neutering for all breeds.Â Unless you are planning on breeding your Cane Corso, neutering is desirable for a couple of reasons. Even then, you should supervise very carefully. A Cane Corso can be a demanding dog and one that’s difficult to handle. More Our dogs . Explore. Cane Corso .. Chien Cane Corso. White markings are common on the chest, toe tips, chin and nose bridge. On the average, a Cane Corso can live up to 9.3 years, maxing out at 12 years. The blue coat color is found in various intensity which can form a blue brindle known as Grigio Tigrato. Cane Corso is highly prized by hunters and farmers because of the immense strength, loyalty, speed, courage and constant readiness to work. Nickname: Puppy #2 on PuppyFinder.com. There is also a history that when there were hardly any dark breeders of the breed in the eighties of the 1980s, crossed with black boxer, and if to get that bright black cloak, which today are common today. The Cane Corso has a very high need for training, exercise and early socialization. Animals. The Cane Corso is everything you want in a dog you are trying to train. Iâd suggest that if your Corso is prone to wander, you might want to microchip him so that you can find him easily. Weâre talking about a dog that can top 120 pounds and could easily knock over and injure a toddler. Mary tells me that a lot of people are afraid of Newton, but an equal number of people are amazed by how handsome Newton is and want to come over and pet him. After reading the foregoing material, you may have a lot more questions, and a lot of them may have to do with so-called âbadâ dogs. Binding of different intensities is also common in both basic coat colors, making it Tigrato (Black Brindle) and Grigio Tigrato (Blue Brindle). The average Cane Corso has a life expectancy of 10 to 12 years. They can be Tigrato or Grigio Tigrato. They are very intelligent dogs and listens very well, but it is important that you train them correctly. The Cane Corso is a descendant of the old Roman Molosser. Age: 10 Weeks Old. 15% Off Cane Corso Tan Promotional Code + Free Shippoing Over $50. A Cane Corso isnât for everyone, so before you adopt that adorable Corso puppy, take a look at these 17 Cane Corso dog breed facts. ⭐Cane Corso puppy ⭐ One male left, ( Tigrato brindle ) Litter C Vaccination up to date. However, it is not unheard of for the Cane Corso price to be as high as $4,000! Or send a scanned pedigree to firstname.lastname@example.org. Download: jpg. It is versatile and can quickly learn a wide variety of tasks. Famous figures from history can provide some brilliant Cane Corso names, especially if you want a name that reflects your dog’s strength and bravery. The Cane Corso, also referred to as an Italian Mastiff, is a large dog breed that originated in Italy. The Chinese Crested Price: Is She Affordable? In name and form the Cane Corso predates its cousin the Neapolitan Mastiff. It is a descendant of dogs the Romans used in warfare and was commonly used as a guard dog and to hunt big game. Verified and Tested. For this reason, even though he is good with children, you should still supervise him around them. The Cane Corso temperament is a fickle one. This is not an ordinary dog. Many people have used both dogs for their own nefarious purposes. Another thing a bored Cane Corso will almost always do is start digging holes all over your yard. Cane Corso with this coat color are known as blue cane Corso, the blue color is also created from frumentino which is a fawn coated color type. If you think youâre the right person for a Corso, thatâs great. âPlay? When he does good things give him a treat, andÂ congratulateÂ him with a pat and positive tone. Fawn also has a number of different expressions, ranging from the pale of a formentino to 'red' to the more common beige color, with the back coat hairs tipped with black. Vând Cane Corso de 4 sÄptÄmâni, disponibil mascul Èi femela pe negru Èi gri inch Ofer pentru monta mascul cane corso in varsta de 4 ani. If you decide that your heart has called you to the Cane Corso, I would also suggest another type of âcall.â One to a pet insurance company. One thing to understand is that the Cane Corso is very much like the Pitbull in that he gets a bad rap. Before we look closer at the Cane Corso's Temperament and its other attributes here is a brief history on the Cane Corso. SIRE: Sahagian's Cassius Cane (Cash) Cassius is a heavily muscled, powerful and athletic Corso. Download: jpg. He may have difficulty getting along with similarly sized dogs of the same gender. Give it a shot. A well-adjusted Cane Corso will be a protective dog, but he will be calm about it. Based in UK. Blog. Male Cane Corso dog names inspired by historical figures. Many times, shelters will have more mixed breeds available than pedigrees. The Cane Corso is a calm, quiet dog, and he feels a strong devotion to his family. Cane Corso Tigrato. Copyright © 2011 – 2021 DogTemperament.Com All Rights Reserved, unless otherwise noted. Just be sure itâs right â I donât want your Corso to end up in a shelter because you canât handle him. Or send a scanned pedigree to email@example.com. With that in mind, letâs do a bit of a âQ&Aâ about various breeds and issues. The Cane Corso. The Cane Corso dog is a large and very beautiful breed of mastiff. The âprey driveâ is very high in a Corso, and unless theyâre raised with other animals from puppyhood, theyâre likely to see them as prey. So, there are your 17 Cane Corso dog breed facts. This is the ideal cocktail of traits as far as training is concerned. Come vedete, dunque, in questo caso il Cane corso tigrato o il Cane corso grigio sono perfettamente in standard di razza. If you choose a Cane Corso as your canine companion, youâll be in it for a longer haul than you would with most large breeds. The top five are AmStaffs, German Shepherds, Rottweilers, Dobermans, and Wolf Dogs. Its name is derived from the Latin word âCohors,â which means âguardianâ and âprotectorâ. You can easily distinguish a chocolate Cane Corso from other dogs because their nose and the skin around their eyes have a pink-purple tone. If you see your dog start doing this, you should know it is not getting enough exercise and work on it immediately. Contact Blue Kings Cane Corso Breeders of Atlanta, GA, At Call 404-990-0714 For More Information. With a Corso, though, it can be a little more than that. However, as Iâve previously suggested, they can be stubborn. for a male. While these dogs are very obedient and easy to train, they can also become restless and have behavioral problems if neglected. Gender: Female. Cane Corso puppies should be friendly and trusting with strangers. If they do not get enough exercise, they will soon start to feel bored, which is when you will start to see bad behavior. A Corso is a scary-looking dog, and he might intimidate some of your friends. With proper training as a puppy, the otherwise docile and loving Cane Corso temperament can shine through. What I want to do here is delve a little deeper into the Cane Corso, and give you the facts youâll need to think about if youâre considering welcoming one into your home. This is a powerful dog with an attitude and can be very dangerous in the wrong hands. Read On…. Cane Corso Litter of 9 Puppies FOR SALE near PIPE CREEK, Texas, USA. Your Cane Corso Needs a High-Quality Diet. Because of their energetic nature, it is important that they have a big yard to run around in and they also need to be taken on a daily walk, or preferably, a jog. since the cane corso and the Neapolitan mastino are first cousins in the beginning. The Cane Corso while not an inherently dangerous dog is an inherently independent, loyal and headstrong dog. Age: 10 Weeks Old. The Cane Corso is a large Italian Molosser, which is closely related to the Neapolitan Mastiff. Training The Cane Corso Italiano is intelligent and easily trainable. You can find a Cane Corso for sale either from a breeder who specializes in Cane Corso puppies or at your local animal shelter. The Cane Corso is a catch dog used with cattle and swine, and also in wild boar hunts. Cane Corso Puppies for Sale. The Cane Corso tends to be uber-sensitive to the slightest sense of danger or distress. The Cane Corso is a large Italian Molosser, which is closely related to the Neapolitan Mastiff. Its name derives from cane da corso, an old term for those catch dogs used in rural activities for cattle and swine, as distinct from cane da camera which indicates the catch dog kept as a bodyguard.In the recent â¦ The Cane Corso (pronounced [ˈkaːne ˈkɔrso]) is an Italian breed of mastiff.It is used for personal protection, tracking, law enforcement, as a guard dog, and as a companion dog.. History. Youâve probably heard that dogs can sense fear in humans, and to a certain extent, thatâs true. Rare color!!! It is also important that teach them to acknowledge and respect you the owner as the alpha. Iâm sorry about that. If you need more information about 79+ Fawn Tigrato Cane Corso, you can check the following LINK. With proper socialization, they become more aloof and discerning as they mature. They may only have average â¦ All Cane Corso found here are from AKC-Registered parents. You have to have a strong personality to own a Corso, but if the fit is right for you and the dog, youâll never have a better friend. Watch Allora and Star - the aunts of the puppies, playing with Brianna's puppies at 5 weeks old. If you would like us to add a picture of your dog, please e-mail to the above e-mail address. Because the Corso has a tendency toward dominance, it is vital that they are socialized early on. Â. Tigrato brindle Cane Corso Italian mastiff. That said, these dogs were mainly used on farms. Things You Should Know. This is a big, powerful dog that could react, not necessarily out of anger, but out of fear. A few tips on the weight of the puppy Cane Corso, during its growth: Growth of Cane Corso female: According to its size, the weight of the Cane Corso female at 3 months should be between 14.3 and 15.6 kg. If you choose to adopt a Cane Corso, you will have to accept that there will be people who will fear your dog. â¦ However, itâs the nature of the beast when youâre talking about a dog breed that a lot of people find problematic. Dogs do know who is afraid of them. That goes for any dog though, really. These dogs are the kind of dog that can easily take over the leadership role and become dominance aggressive. So if youâre wondering if your Cane Corso is ârelatedâ to Pit Bulls, the answer is âNo,â because he is a pit bull breed. The Cane Corso was bred to be a versatile dog that could perform a range of different jobs, from guarding property to herding cattle. The price of the dog depends on the breeder, the health and temperament of the dog, and the purity of his pedigree. Proper training is key to bring out the desirable Cane Corso temperament. ... Tigrato brindle Cane Corso Italian mastiff. Extremely protective of his family and property, to his people he is a cuddly â¦ They do just fine with being outside, patrolling the yard â which is something they seem to enjoy anyway. He became the president of the International Cane Corso Federation in 1995, and was the driving force behind the breedâs pursuit of full AKC recognition, which will be realized this July. If his ears donât stand upright, they may be more prone to infection and other complications. There are several colors the Cane Corsoâs coat comes in. At 6 months, the Cane Corso female weighs on average between 26.7 kg for the smallest individuals and 28.9 kg for the largest individuals. Brindling of varying intensity is common on both basic coat colors as well, creating tigrato (full brindle), black brindle, and blue brindle. If not, the bad behavior can start to become permanent. For the sake of a monthly premium thatâs usually pretty reasonable, you can buy a lot of peace of mind with pet insurance. This will ensure that you are able to control their protective nature or else they may start to find all strangers threatening. THE TRUE LOVING character of the Cane Corso! What is a Black Mouth Cur? It is believed that modern Cane Corsos are direct descendants of Ancient Rome military dogs, Canis Pugnax. I guess you can say we raise, âFree Range Cane Corsoâsâ. The Cane Corso temperament is that of a working dog, so they are very smart and have lots of energy. They will quickly start chewing on anything they can find. On the average, a Cane Corso can live up to 9.3 years, maxing out at 12 years. I hope youâll choose your dog. The Cane Corso. In the right hands, a Cane Corso can be a wonderful dog, a valued family member, and a great canine citizen. The Cane Corso [ËkaËne ËkÉrso] is an Italian breed of dog, for years valued highly in Italy as a companion, guardian and hunter. The Cane Corso is a large dog of molossoid type, and is closely related to the Neapolitan Mastiff.In name and form the Cane Corso predates its cousin the Neapolitan Mastiff. What to do if your dog gets bit by a raccoon? True to its naming, the Cane Corso has been used as a companion, guardian, and hunter in Italy for centuries. In short, health issues that can affect Cane Corso Mastiff puppies, as well as adults, can include: As far as the average Cane Corso size is concerned, females are between 23 and 26 inches, while males are between 24 and 28 inches tall. Regular grooming will more than take care of any shedding your Corso might do, and even then, you wonât have to do much. Gender: Female. Download: jpg. All I can tell you here is that your heart wants what it wants, and if your heart tells you that It has to be a Cane Corso, go for it. Only a complete idiot would try to walk off with a dog that looks like a mountain and has 97 teeth. Read This First. The first thing most people would think of when looking at a Cane Corso is a guard dog, and in fact, they do make excellent watch dogs due to their ever-watchful and protective nature. Hi animal lovers, I see you are looking for 88+ Tigrato Grigio Tigrato Cane Corso Cucciolo. Else, to make sure youâre dealing with someone reputable, make sure he or she is licensed. Rooman valtakunnan tuhon jälkeen cane corsoja käytettiin monenlaisissa tehtävissä Etelä â¦ The Cane Corso does make the list here, but so does the little Beagle, the pretty Dalmatian, and even the lovable little Border Collie. This is further on the âfearâ thing. It is a descendant of dogs the Romans used in warfare and was commonly used as a guard dog and to hunt big game. As a result, he may have more difficulty making his ears stand upright when heâs older. Cane Corso Dog Characteristics. If you choose a Cane Corso, you should expect that he will pick one person out of your family to love and protect. On the other hand, if your new best buddy is just a puppy, you can follow the same procedure for socialization that you would with any other dog â expose him to as many other humans, animals, and situations as possible. If you have the kind of schedule that keeps you away for long periods, this may not be a good breed for you. The blue coat color is found in various intensity which can form a blue brindle known as Grigio Tigrato. The reason for doing this is because the weight of the dogâs ear can actually erode the cartilage in the ear. In fact, if your Corso is loved and petted regularly, you probably wonât have any shedding issues. Thatâs great! What is the Worst Dog to Own for a Newbie? They are, however, very strong-willed and not always the best dogs for newbies. The blue cane Corso has the same temperament like the cane Corso. If you need more information about 88+ Tigrato Grigio Tigrato Cane Corso Cucciolo, you â¦ This is not true. The Cane Corso is a large Italian Molosser.It is well muscled and looks more athletic than most other mastiffs, tending less toward sheer bulk like the Neapolitan Mastiff and more towards definition like the original Old English Bulldog.The official Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) standard expects â¦ He is also eager to please, which certainly helps. In name and form the Cane Corso He requires a decent amount of grooming, despite being a shorthaired dog, but itâs nothing you canât manage. You Should Never Physically Discipline a Cane Corso, 9. In the right hands, a Cane Corso can be a wonderful dog, a valued family member, and a great canine citizen. First of all, if you have a male Cane Corso, neutering involves removing the testicles. 30% â¦ The Cane Corso temperament is confident and loyal. He just needs you to help him get there. This is simply because of the size, not nature, of the dog. Pages Businesses Local Service Pet Service Pet Breeder Cane Corso St Louis County Videos Tigrato pup available!!!! Appartiene alla categoria dei cani molossi e come tale ha un carattere deciso e sviluppa un forte attaccamento al padrone. If you donât feel equal to the task of training and handling a large, powerful dog, or if someone in your family is afraid of big dogs, you might be better off to choose another breed. Most of their days are spent running on our 22 â¦ Like all Mastiffs, the Cane Corso can be reserved around strangers if you do not socialize him well enough as a puppy. These fearless and vigilant dogs are not right for everyone. View all Cane Corso without a mother: Advanced Queries; View all Cane Corso with a DNA Profile : Colour; 42592: Unknown: 16446: Black/Nero: 12217: Brindle/Tigrato: 5695: Black brindle/Nero tigrato: 5509: Grey/Grigio: 3171: Fawn/Fulvo: 3036: Grey brindle/Grigio tigrato: 1107: Fulvo black mask/Fulvo maschera nera: 815: Fulvo â¦ In name and form the Cane Corso The Cane Corso is a high-energy dog that needs a lot of protein in his diet â at least 22% per volume. And that is just so damn sad. However, it is not unheard of for the Cane Corso price to be as high as $4,000! What Are Dog Withers And Why Do You Need To Measure Them? You may have to call several shelters several times to find the dog you want. (Personality, Price, Train, Health,). He became the president of the International Cane Corso Federation in 1995, and was the driving force behind the breed’s pursuit of full AKC recognition, which will be realized this July. The idea that any dog was ever bred to fight another of its kind is absolute nonsense. Due to this watchful nature, it is important to make sure to properly socialize these dogs while they are still puppies. Theyâre also very eager to please. (Personality, Price, Train, Health,). It came from a line of dogs that are known for their excellent guarding instincts. Your Corso is a working dog and needs to have a job in order to be happy.