However, his monstrosity results not only from his grotesque appearance but also from the unnatural manner of his creation, which involves the secretive animation of a mix of stolen body parts and strange chemicals. […] Stevenson’s novella is, among other things, a tale of civilisation and its discontents, which conjures up the dark underside of the repressed world of the male professionals (doctors, scientists and lawyers) who form Jekyll’s circle. The Double in Robert Louis Stevenson’s “Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde” 4. Strict moral codes and ethical manners were opposed to corruption, money-making capitalistic interests and fake compassion and what was shown outside began to be inevitably separated from what was felt in the individual’s intimacy and in the private sphere: The Strange Case also functions as an historically specific moral allegory about Victorian hypocrisy and repression. The divided nature of man, the theme of good and evil aspects of a character has attracted many English writers. Literary Reflexivity. He turns on Victor's family and friends because they represent to Victor what Victor has denied to him: the comforts of domestic affection. Yet when the two meet in chapter ten, their language is interesting because it is not necessarily what we expect. The novel represents the eternal struggle between good and evil, which, this time, live together in the same person: Jekyll  and Hyde are the symbol of a double personality. […] Stevenson’s novella is, among other things, a tale of civilisation and its discontents, which conjures up the dark underside of the repressed world of the male professionals (doctors, scientists and lawyers) who form Jekyll’s circle. In Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, Victor Frankenstein, creates a monster that in a certain way represents his double. Henry Jekyll is a brilliant scientist who, by mixing special drugs, succeeds in creating a potion which is able to separate the two natures of man: good and evil. By this, the monster changes, he exp lains his cruelty: “I a ‘splitting point’, in other words a pivotal moment in the text where it becomes apparent that the protagonist has suddenly become one of two halves. In Frankenstein, Mary Shelley depicts the creation’s duality of his qualities. Critical Viewpoint A number of critics have noted that the window in Frankenstein functions much like a mirror, showing the demonic double … The first chapter contains an introduction to the history of the gothic novel, and Frankenstein’s place within it, and furthermore it also tells in short the life of Mary Shelley, and how the novel came to life. The double (or doppelgänger) theme is a common Gothic theme, which refers to two characters who are supposedly halves of each other. (from The Cambridge Companion to the Victorian Novel, 2012). Major Themes in Frankenstein [This list has been composed with the idea of assisting readers to trace major themes as they unfold through the intricate texture of the novel. Theme of double in Frankenstein? Mary Shelley’s ‘Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus’ 2.2 Robert Louis Stevenson’s ‘The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde’ 3. The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde is Robert Louis Stevenson's most famous and important novel and it is one of the greatest classics of the fantasy genre. Successivi. The Doppelgänger – as a narrative device that permits the confrontation or division of the self, the violent encounter of the conscious and subconscious, or a haunting, uncanny physical doubling – is an imperative element of many Gothic narratives, and certainly one the key threads of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. Modern man feels to be anonymous and negligible in a non-caring world which resembles much more an assembly line than a jolly place to live in. Throughout the novel, Frankenstein is gripped by “mutable… feelings”: heights of intellectual fervor, explosions of rage, sleepless guilt-ridden nights. Add your answer and earn points. Shelley's Frankenstein contains a protagonist, Victor Frankenstein, but that protagonist is not a "hero." The twentieth century has been characterized by major changes and particular socio-political circumstances: leaving the old century for the new one, the solid certainties of the previous era and both the faith in progress and the vision of a better future begin to collapse, giving space to a panorama of crisis. In the meantime, however, they strongly believed in self-help, self-control, patriarchal laws and decent conduct. Usually when there are instances of a double, there is. Primary Sources 5.2. Sources 5.1. The idea of respectability, in particular, distinguished the middle class from the lower classes. The theme of the double As a consequence of his manipulations with nature, Frankenstein is punished because his creature kills the people that the doctor loved. The major themes found in this novel are, theme of birth and creation, theme of fear of sexuality, theme of parental responsibility and nurture, alienation, unjust society, the idea of the 'Overreacher' which are described below. Doubles are typically used in literature as the kind of ‘evil twin’ of the protagonist (as in Dostoyevsky’s The Double), however the concept can also be used to link two characters together that share the same characteristics and values (as in Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway). In some cases human identity is shattered into a myriad of pieces: just before the advent of mass society, the individual begins to loose the sense of his/her own value, counting less and less. 1. Even the name Hyde is linked to the theme of the double: it means to hide, to do what you cannot do openly. Of course, the critical commentary touches upon these themes as well, but, since each voice is individual and the essays trace their own intricate paths, no attempt has been made to cross-index the commentary thematically. Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is an 1818 novel written by English author Mary Shelley (1797–1851) that tells the story of Victor Frankenstein, a young scientist who creates a sapient creature in an unorthodox scientific experiment. The reason for Shelley leaving this out is most likely due to the plot of the story which features alot of chasing around and movement. On the surface, therefore, this society appears as the age of reason, social development and charity. The quest for forbidden knowledge (Walton and Dr Frankenstein) is related to the theme of the overreacher. The Picture of Dorian Gray. The theme of Frankenstein: The Poison that is Human Ambition Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein reveals how human ambition generally appears to be a double-edged sword. The theme of mutability, notably introduced in Chapter X, recurs in this reflection by Frankenstein. At the end of the novel, Dorian dies when he destroys his picture with a knife. Shelley's use of the motif of the double is a classic feature of Gothic texts. Gothic Horrors and the Double in Frankenstein provokes fear and a man starts shooting at him. The essay is divided into four chapters. Modern man feels to be anonymous and negligible in a non-caring world which resembles much more an assembly line than a jolly place to live in. … 4 alienation in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and to present evidence that support the essay’s purpose. Dr. Jekyll inhabits a sterile, self-consciously repressed world of male professionals. [1] For further analysis see Tomaso Kemeny, Testi di illustrazione e di rappresentazione dell’800 inglese, Ibis, Como-Pavia 2000. Frankenstein is obsessed with going down in the history books as one of the greatest scientists of all time. Jekyll’s alter ego Hyde, is a version of the id, acting out the libidinal desires which Jekyll’s superego (or Jekyll as superego) would suppress. Eight feet tall and hideously ugly, the monster is rejected by society. How far is the creature a double of Victor, representing the evil side to his character? The creation’s most prominent qualities show the complexity of his character by showing that the creation is both murderous and loving. For instance, in the creator-creature dyad, Frankenstein and his creation are connected by forces beyond their understanding and control. Monster is Frankenstein’s double, representing the evil side of his character? Frankenstein. Seconda… The theme of the double is a particularly common feature in nineteenth century Gothic Literature. Of course, we cannot forget to mention the two most cited works involving the question of the double and the identity crisis: The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson (1886) and The Picture of Dorian Gray (1890) by Oscar Wilde, while in the American short story William Wilson (1839) by Edgar Allan Poe the alter ego is interpreted by a perfect copy of the protagonist who carries also his own name. Doubles are typically used in literature as the kind of ‘evil twin’ of the protagonist (as in Dostoyevsky’s, a ‘splitting point’, in other words a pivotal moment in the text. ûØèÜöàþF›pL¯˜H~Djß3gÔzŒËòc؅O%Ê;úûÓ¶FáQÜl ê2GN£¿=éòiQY@œ,èqóHXžüã ¸>•. In many instances where there is a double, it is the embodiment of a specific set of characteristics either that the original character desires to have, or a concentration of their worst characteristics, thus living up to the ‘evil twin’ stigma. also functions as an historically specific moral allegory about Victorian hypocrisy and repression. Victor Frankenstein’s declamation evidences the view that the creature is his double which… The Victorians, in fact, were great moralisers but they promoted a code of values that reflected the world as they wanted it to be, not as it really was, a world based on duty, hard work, respectability and charity. The text of Frankenstein itself symbolizes many of the same themes that its contents symbolize.For example: Frankenstein's monster is a creature created by imbuing various old body parts with a new life; similarly, Shelley's texts include direct quotes and … Throughout his narrative, the monster … These studies show how the themes of duplicity and dichotomy are extremely inherent components of the ages under discussion. Black … identity is shattered into a myriad of pieces: just before the advent of mass society, the individual begins to loose the sense of his/her own value, counting less and less. But Frankenstein rejection of his creature is crucial and this makes the monster an outcast, a murderer and a rebel against society. These characteristics are opposites but the creation presents both in his character. The theme of the double is a constant of the Victorian writers, in particular of those of the second generation and through it they reveal the hypocrisy of their own time. A Castle – There is no castle in Frankenstein. The idea of a double, or doppelgänger, in literature is a very old concept and one that has brought us many famous works throughout the ages. All four characters, Charlie, Alex, Victor, and the monster are aware of themselves. In many instances where there is a double, it is the embodiment of a specific set of characteristics either that the original character desires to have, or a concentration of their worst characteristics, thus living up to the ‘evil twin’ stigma. The monster convinces Victor that he should have a companion, arguing that he is malicious because he is miserable (p. 147). A FOCUS ON THE MAIN VICTORIAN NOVELS ABOUT THE DOUBLE, The strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde Self-awareness is the main theme that is present throughout all three novels, Frankenstein, Flowers for Algernon, and A Clockwork Orange. where it becomes apparent that the protagonist has suddenly become one of two halves. Frankenstein Even the name Hyde is linked to the theme of the double: it means to hide, to do what you cannot do openly. In some cases human. The presence of the double causes conflict, as there can never be peaceful co-existence between a character and their second manifestation. In the other novel, the theme of the double is more evident: in fact it is the portrayal of “good” and “evil” and its main characters are the … The idea of a double, or doppelgänger, in literature is a very old concept and one that has brought us many famous works throughout the ages. But the appearance was very different from reality and many novels of the period portray a society where labour, death, disease, corruption and social injustice reigned almost everywhere. The presence of the double causes conflict, as there can never be peaceful co-existence between a character and their second manifestation. 1 See answer punzzz17 is waiting for your help. Obviously, this theme pervades the entire novel, as the monster lies at the center of the action. Introduction 2. Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde are symbolic of the duplicity of the Victorian Age: on the one side Jekyll represents the public face of the individual and is a respectable man; on the other side, at night in the bad areas of London, he is Mr Hyde, who represents the dark side present in all people. The double. When we think of Frankenstein, presuming we know nothing of the novel, it's fair to say that we'd assume Victor to be an eloquent man and the creature to be a hulking savage. The theme of the double Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray is the story of a young man that is very beautiful: his portrait represents his double, his soul corrupted by his bad actions. In Mary Shelley’s gothic novel, ‘Frankenstein’, the eponymous character states that the creature he constructs from corpses is “my own spirit let loose from the grave”. A common element in all these stories is their moral message: sooner or later the protagonists will be punished for their sins because in the end the evil will be defeated. The latter, the deformed and repulsive Mr Hyde, slowly manages to prevail over the former and commits several wicked and criminal deeds. Furthermore, a large and growing body of critical literature has investigated the existing correlation between duplicity and the peculiar characteristics of the Romantic and Victorian periods. Dr. Jekyll inhabits a sterile, self-consciously repressed world of male professionals. There is more than just a binary relationship between a good self and its evil other. The writers and their texts 2.1. Now, I will try to relate each theme/element of Gothic texts with the contents of Frankenstein. The strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, simonemanfredda@virgilio.it rossella.iaia@gmail.com gisella.brasca@tiscali.it. A key work within English literature is obviously considered. The twentieth century has been characterized by major changes and particular socio-political circumstances: leaving the old century for the new one, the solid certainties of the previous era and both the faith in progress and the vision of a better future begin to collapse, giving space to a panorama of crisis. Frankenstein by Mary Shelley deals with the varieties of themes, giving the novel a possibility of diverse interpretations. The double (Dr Frankenstein and the Monster). The Double 3.1. Jekyll’s alter ego Hyde, is a version of the id, acting out the libidinal desires which Jekyll’s superego (or Jekyll as superego) would suppress. A key work within English literature is obviously considered The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner (1824) by James Hogg, where the protagonist’s second self is the figure of the devil himself, but already in Frankenstein: Or, the Modern Prometheus (1818) by Mary Shelley the creature that comes to life can be regarded as the evil alter ego of its creator, the young Genevan scientist. He begins to feel himself unnecessary, insignificant as a single individual and to make sense only as part of the mass: he is just one of the many tiny grains of sand that form the beach of humanity. There is more than just a binary relationship between a good self and its evil other. Comparison of the Double in Frankenstein and Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde 5. He begins to feel himself unnecessary, insignificant as a single individual and to make sense only as part of the mass: he is just one of the many tiny grains of sand that form the beach of humanity. The monster devotes himself to the destruction of ideal domesticity once he recognises he is doomed to be excluded from it, and in this he may be acting as Victor's double. As a consequence of his manipulations with nature, Frankenstein is punished because his creature kills the people that the doctor loved. A second theme stresses the idea of human injustice towards outsiders. The main theme of the story is the theme of the overreacher. Man creates, innovates, and develops technologies for future generations. Of course, those themes, together with sexuality, were taboos and the novelists usually employed different literary devices to represent them. •The monsteris complementary to his creator (theme of the double): they both suffer from isolation (dr. Frankenstein isolates himself from society to follow his passion for science) and they both begin with a desire to be goodbut end up with a desire of revenge. Parallels and doubles in Frankenstein. The idea of dualism is a recurrent theme in literature, echoing the perceived division between good and evil. In doing this, he loses the sense of his proper self and identity, feels himself to be none or, better, a myriad of fragmented parts that fall apart. It was a mixture of morality and hypocrisy, severity and conformity to social standards, prudery, sexual repression and rigid social control. Clearly, Victor Frankenstein is this modern Prometheus-in a way, he stole the idea of creation from God and used it for his own ill-advised purposes. Shelley started writing the story when she was 18, and the first edition was published anonymously in London on 1 January 1818, when she was 20. Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray is the story of a young man that is very beautiful: his portrait represents his double, his soul corrupted by his bad actions. In Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, Victor Frankenstein, creates a monster that in a certain way represents his double. The Double in Mary Shelley’s ‘Frankenstein’ 3.2. The overcoming of natural and divine rules the creation of a human being without the participation of … The creature, by contrast, is doomed to spend much of his life in darkness, able to walk around only at night so that he may hide from humans. Light is tied to the theme of knowledge as enlightenment, as both Captain Walton and Frankenstein search for illumination in their scientific pursuits. In doing this, he loses the sense of his proper self and identity, feels himself to be none or, better, a myriad of fragmented parts that fall apart.